Introduction: Starting in the centerleft column below, a unit of measurement based on the Planck Length is dividedbytwo 101 times until that measurement is the Planck Length, generally considered the smallest unit of measurement within space and time. In the centerright column, the same measurement is multiplied by two. In 101+ steps we are out to the edges of the observable universe. Assume that the simplest threedimensional form defined by the fewest number of vertices is the tetrahedron. Assume that the nesting of the basic Platonic structures within each other necessarily interrelates all structure of every manifestation within the known universe. The blanks are for students to find answers from examples within their studies, especially biology, chemistry, physics, astronomy and astrophysics and also to correct mistakes. Go to the general overview… 
Basic Questions, Basic Structures, and FormandFunction: Could all structures be in some way derivative of the five basic solids discussed by Plato and the Greeks in and around 360 BC? If that concept is taken as a given, then questions about form and function could be reengaged. Perhaps base 2 exponential notation is a place to start.Though apparent throughout the sciences, these five basic solids have not been used to develop an integrative model for human knowledge. Perhaps this is a step in that direction. Most academics today cannot tell you what is most simply contained within a tetrahedron or octahedron (by dividing the edges in half and connecting the vertices). Pictures below illustrate some answers. It seems that the simplest mathematical operations can still open new paths and logic to explore. Go to the image file of this board… 
GENERAL DISCIPLINES (and Scale)  PLANCK NUMBER EXAMPLES (within ±50%)  DECREASING IN SIZE Get smaller, divide by 2 (Center left column) 
INCREASING IN SIZE Get larger, multiply by 2 (Center right column)

PLANCK NUMBER EXAMPLES (within ±50%)

GENERAL DISCIPLINES (and Scale)  
HUMAN SCALE  101. Range: Human Hair  40.9755356 microns  Around 40 microns  101. Thicker Hair  HUMAN SCALE  
BIOLOGY  100. Sperm cell diameter  20.4877678 microns  81.9510712 microns  102. Thickness of paper  MANUFACTURING  
Cytology  99. Diameter of average human body cells  10.2438839 micronsor 1.02438839×10^{5}m  .163902142 millimeters or 1.63902142×10^{4}m  103. Egg cell diameter  ___  
Microbiology  98. Diameter of average human capillary  5.12194196 microns orabout .0002 inches  .327804284 millimeters  104. This period. Got it?  ___  
97. Red blood cells~2.4 µm  2.56097098 microns (µm)  .655608568 millimeters  105. Large bacterium  Bacteriology  
Bacteriology  96. Rather small bacteria and red light (1.28 µm)  1.28048549 microns or 1.2804854×10^{6} m  1.31121714 millimeters or 1.3112171×10^{3}m  106. Large grain of sand  ___  
NANO TECHNOLOGY  95. Range of visible light ~ 400 to 1000 nm  640.242744 nanometers  2.62243428 millimeters  107. A small ant  Myrmecology  
___  94. Nanoparticles ~ 100to10000 nm  320.121372 nanometers  5.24486856 millimeters (around a quarter inch)  108. Very small objects that we can still handle  PHYSICS  
___  93. Thickness of gold leaf ~125 nm  160.060686 nanometers  1.04897 centimeters or 1.04897375×10^{2}m  109. Often parts of common small objects  CHEMISTRY  
___  92. Nanowires  80.0303432 nanometers  2.09794742 centimeters  110. Rather small things  ELECTRONICS  
___  91. Semiconductor chip  40.0151716 nanometers  4.19589484 centimeters  111. A spoonful  TECHNOLOGY  
Virology  90. Virus range  20.0075858 nanometers  8.39178968 centimeters  112. Anything 3.3 inches!  BIOLOGY  
___  89. Thickness of a cell wall is around 10 nm  1.00037929×10^{8} meters or 10 nanometers  16.7835794 centimeters or 1.67835794×10^{1}m  113: Small living and manufactured things  ZOOLOGY  
Immunology  88. Insulin molecule  5.00189644×10^{–}^{8} meters  33.5671588 centimeters  114. Objects we handle  BOTANY  
___  87. DNA helix ±2 nm  2.50094822 nanometers  67.1343176 centimeters or 19.68 inches  115. Agricultural and manufactured things  ANTHROPOLOGY  
Chemistry  86. Glucose molecule and Fullerenes diameter (Buckyballs) range: ~1.1nm  1.25474112 nanometers  1.3426864 meters or 52.86 inches  116. A child or other smaller animals  SLEEP & VISIONS  
Genetics  85. Distance between base pairs within DNA ±340 pm  .625237056 nanometers or 6.25237056×10^{10} meters  2.6853728 meters or 105.723 inches  117. A bed, a little stable or place to rest  INSIGHTS & IDEAS  
HUMAN SCALEPN 75 to 150  84. Diameter of a water molecule ±280 pm  .312618528 nanometers or 3.12618528×10^{10} meters  5.3707456 meters  118. A small bedroom  PSYCHOLOGY  
Picometrespm  83. Diameter of a carbon atom ±70 pm  .156309264 nanometers or 1.56309264×10^{10}m  10.7414912 meters, 35.2411 feet  119. A home, a small barn or shop  SOCIOLOGY  
___  82. Helium atom diameter  7.81546348×10^{11} meters  .  21.4829824 meters  120. Property  FAMILIES 
___  81. Hydrogen atom ±25 pm  3.90773174×10^{11} meters  42.9659648 meters  121. Larger properties  RETAIL  
___  80. ____  1.95386587×10^{11}m  85.9319296 meters  122. Complex systems  CONSTRUCTION  
___  79. Use Huang scale  9.76932936×10^{12}m  171.86386 meters or about 563 feet  123. Big buildings or a little neighborhood  GEOLOGY  
___  78. Wavelength of an Xray  4.88466468×10^{12}m  343.72772 meters or about 1128 feet  124. A huge complex or a neighborhood  ARCHITECTURE  
___  77. Diameter of florine ion  2.44233234×10^{12} m  687.455439 meters  125. Farms and large complexes  AGRICULTURE  
___  76. Gamma wavelength  1.22116617×10^{12}m  1.37491087 kilometers  126. Very small towns  SMALL POLITICAL SYSTEMS  
BEGINNING OF  75. Use Falstad scale  6.10583084×10^{13}m  2.74982174 kilometers  127. Smallest states  TRANSPORTATION  
SMALL SCALE  74. ___  3.05291542×10^{13}m  5.49964348 kilometers  128. Towns  AERONAUTICS  
PN 1TO75  73.___  1.52645771×10^{13}m  10.999287 kilometers or within 6.83464 miles  129. Small cities, or large towns  JUDICIAL SYSTEMS  
NUCLEAR PHYSICS  72. Average range of the size of atom’s nucleus  7.63228856×10^{14}m  21.998574 kilometers  130. Large towns  LOCAL POLITICS  
___  71. Gold atom nucleus  3.81614428×10^{14} m  43.997148 kilometers  131. Large cities  ___  
___  70. Aluminum atom  1.90807214×10^{14}m  87.994296 kilometers  132. Small states  ___  
___  69. Electron diameter  9.54036072×10^{15}m  175.988592 kilometers or 108 miles  133. Very small countries or anything within 100 miles  NATIONAL POLITICS  
___  68. Helium atom diameter  4.77018036×10^{15} m  351.977184 kilometers or 218 miles  134. Within the orbital range: International Space Station  SPACE POLITICS  
Femtometresfm  67. Neutron diameter Hydrogen – 1.75±×10^{15}m  2.38509018×10^{15}m  703.954368 kilometers  135. Countries  ___  
66. Diameter of a proton or fermions (femtometre )  1.19254509×10^{15}m  1407.90874 kilometers or about 874 miles  136. Larger countries  ___  
65. 36+ quintillion vertices  5.96272544×10^{16} m  2815.81748 kilometers  137. Regions of earth  ___  
THEORETICAL PHYSICS  64. Neutrinos, quarks  2.98136272×10^{16}m  5631.63496 kilometers  138. Largest countries  ___  
Attometers  63. ___  1.49068136×10^{16}m  11,263.2699 kilometers or about 7000 miles  139. Diameter of the earth  ___  
am  62. ___  7.45340678×10^{17}m  22,526.5398 kilometers  140. GPS Satellite Altitude  ___  
61. ___  3.72670339×10^{17}m  45,053.079 kilometers  141. ___  ___  
VERYSMALL  60. Over a quintillion vertices  1.86335169×10^{17}m  90,106.158 kilometers  142. ___  ___  
SCALE UNIVERSE  59. Quarks  9.31675848×10^{18}m  180,212.316 kilometers (over 111,979 miles)  143. ___  ___  
PN 40to60  58. ___  4.65837924×10^{18}m  360,424.632 kilometers  144. Distance: Earth to Moon  ___  
___  57. ___  2.32918962×10^{18}m  720,849.264 kilometers  145. ___  ___  
___  56. ___  1.16459481×10^{18}m  1,441,698.55 kilometers  146. Diameter of the sun  ___  
Zeptometers  55. ___  5.82297404×10^{–}^{19}m  2,883,397.1 kilometers  147. ___  ___  
zm  54. ___  2.91148702×10^{19}m  5,766,794.2 kilometers  148. ___  ___  
___  53. ___  1.45574351×10^{19}m  11,533,588.4 kilometers  149. ___  ___  
___  52. ___  7.27871756×10^{20}m  23,067,176.8 kilometers  150. ___  BEGINNING OF  
___  51. ___  3.63935878×10^{20}m  46,134,353.6 kilometers  151. ___  LARGE SCALE  
___  50. Over a quadrillion vertices  1.81967939×10^{20}m  92,268,707.1 kilometers  152. ___  PN 150to202.34  
___  49. ___  9.09839696×10^{21}m  184,537,414 kilometers  153. Range: Earth to Sun  ASTRONOMY  
___  48. ___  4.54919848×10^{21}m  369,074,829 kilometers  154. To go to Ceres asteroid  ___  
___  47. ___  2.27459924×10^{21}m  738,149,657 kilometers  155. Range: JupitertoSun  ___  
___  46. Pati Preons  1.13729962×10^{21}m  1.47629931×10^{12}m  156. Range: SaturntoSun  ASTROPHYSICS  
Yoctometers  45. ___  5.68649812×10^{–}^{22}m  2.95259863×10^{12}m  157.Range: UranustoSun  Terametres (Tm)  
ym  44. ___  2.84324906×10^{22}m  5.90519726×10^{12}m  158. Range: PlutotoSun  LARGE SCALE  
___  43. ___  1.42162453×10^{22}m  1.18103945×10^{13}m  159. ___  UNIVERSE  
___  42. ___  7.10812264×10^{23}m  2.36207882×10^{13}m  160. 24 hour light travel  ___  
___  41. THE CHALLENGE:  3.55406132×10^{23}m  4.72415764×10^{13}m  161. ___  ___  
VERYVERY,  40. Over 1 trillion vertices  1.77703066×10^{23}m  9.44831528×10^{13}m  162. ___  ___  
SMALLSCALE  39. 549 billion vertices  8.88515328×10^{24}m  1.88966306×10^{14}m  163. 7day light travel  ___  
UNIVERSE  38. 274 billion vertices  4.44257664×10^{24}m  3.77932612×10^{14}m  164. ___  ___  
PN 20to40  37. 137 billion vertices  2.22128832×10^{24}m  7.55865224×10^{14}m  165. ___  ___  
36. 68 billion vertices  1.11064416×10^{24}m  1.5117305×10^{15}m  166. ___  Petametres (Pm)  
35. 34,359,738,368 vertices  5.5532208×10^{25}m  3.0234609×10^{15}m  167. ___  ___  
SPECULATIONS:  34. 17,179,869,184 vertices  2.7766104×10^{25}m  6.0469218×10^{16}m  168. In the range of one light year (ly) (9.4×10^{15})  1 parsec ~ 31 trillion km or 19 trillion miles  
Quantum State  33. 8,589,934,592 vertices  1.3883052×10^{25}m  1.20938436×10^{16}m  169. ______  1 parsec ~ 31 trillion km or 19 trillion miles  
Machines (QSM)  32. 4,294,967,296 vertices  6.94152599×10^{26}m  2.41876872×10^{16}m  170. Go to Proxima Centauri (39.9 Pm)  1 parsec (3.26 light years, 30.8 Pm)  
(QSM)  31. 2,147,483,648 vertices  3.47076299×10^{26} m  4.83753744×10^{16}m  171. Distance to Alpha Centauri A & B (41 Pm)  ___  
___  30. Over 1 billion vertices  1.735381494×10^{26} m  9.67507488×10^{16}m  172. Distance to Sirius (81 Pm, 8.6 ly)  ___  
Modulus for  29. 536,870,912 vertices  8.67690749×10^{27} m  1.93501504 ×10^{17}m  173. Distance to Tau Ceti (110 Pm)  100 Petametres or 11 light years (ly)  
transformations (Mt)  28. 268,435,456 vertices  4.3384537×10^{27}m  3.87002996×10^{17}m  174. Diameter of Orion Nebula (350 Pm)  ___  
27. 134,217,728 vertices  2.16922687×10^{27}m  7.74005992 ×10^{17}m  175. Distance to Regulus star (730 Pm)  ___  
Mt  26. 67,108,864 vertices  1.0846134×10^{27}m  1.54801198×10^{18}m  176. Omega Centauri diameter (1.6 Em)  Exametre (Em): 110 light years (ly)  
___  25. 33,554,432 vertices  5.42306718×10^{28} m  3.09602396×10^{18}m  177. Thickness of our Milky Way (2 Em)  Our Galaxy  
___  24. 16,777,216 vertices  2.711533591×10^{28}m  6.19204792×10^{18}m  178. Distance to Helix Nebula (6.2 Em)  ___  
___  23. 8,388,608 vertices  1.35576679561×10^{28}m  1.23840958×10^{19}m  179. Distance to the Orion Nebula (13 Em)  12.38 Em  
QSM  22. 4,194,304 vertices  6.778833978×10^{29}m  2.47681916×10^{19}m  180. Horsehead Nebula (15 Em)  ___  
___  21. 2,097,152 vertices  3.3894169890×10^{29}m  4.95363832×10^{19}m  181. ___  ___  
EXTREMELY  20. 1,048,576 vertices 
1.69470849×10^{29}m  9.90727664×10^{19}m  182. ___  ___  
SMALLSCALE  19. 524,288 vertices  8.47354247×10^{30}m  1.981455338×10^{20}m  183. Small Megellanic Cloud diameter in Milky Way (150 Em)  198.1 Exametres  
UNIVERSE  18. 262,144 vertices  4.2367712×10^{30}m  3.96291068×10^{20}m  184. To the center of our galaxy (260 Em)  ___  
PN 10to20  17. 131,072 vertices  2.1183856181504×10^{30}m  7.92582136×10^{20}m  185. ___  ___  
16. 65,536 vertices  1.05919280907×10^{30}m  1.58516432×109^{21}m  186. Go to Large Magellanic Cloud  1.5 Zettametre: 150,000 ly  
15. 32,768 vertices  5.2959640453×10^{31}m  3.17032864×10^{21}m  187. Small Magellanic Cloud (2 Zm)  3 Zettametres: 310,000 ly  
14. 16,384 vertices  2.6479820226×10^{31}m  6.34065727×10^{21}m  188. ___  ___  
13. 8192 vertices  1.3239910113×10^{31}m  1.26813145×10^{22}m  189. ___  ___  
Note: ThetaFushian functions  12. 4096 vertices  6.61995505672×10^{32}m  2.53626284×10^{22}m  190. Distance to the Andromeda Galaxy  24 Zm  
See: Models  11. 2048 vertices  3.30997752836×10^{32}m  5.07252568×10^{22}m  191. ___  ___  
SMALLESTSCALE UNIVERSE  10. 1024 vertices 
1.65498876928×10^{32}m  1.01450514×10^{23}m  192. (Fill in a blank)  101 Zettametres  
Cubicities  9. 512 vertices 
8.2749438464×10^{33}m  2.02901033×10^{23}m  193. Go to Centaurus A Galaxy (140 Zm)  ___  
Primary QSM  8. 256 vertices 
4.1374719232×10^{33}m  4.05802056×10^{23}m  194. (Fill in a blank)  ___  
Primary Mt  7. 128 vertices 
2.0687359616×10^{33}m  8.11604112×10^{23}m  195. ___  ___  
Nested Geometries  6. 64 vertices 
1.0343679808×10^{33}m  1.62320822×10^{24}m  196. ___  Yottametre (Ym)  
Primary cubicities  5. 32 vertices 
5.171839904×10^{34}m  3.24641644×10^{24}m  197. Length of the Great Wall (4.7 Ym)  ___  
Strings & Knots  4. 16 vertices 
2.585919952×10^{34}m  6.49283305×10^{24}m  198. Distance to the Shapley Supercluster (6.1 Ym)  ___  
Primary knots  3. 8 vertices 
1.292959976×10^{34}m  1.29856658×10^{25}m  199. Length of Sloan Great Wall (13.7 Ym)  12.98 Ym  
Cubicity or string  2. 4 vertices 
6.46479988×10^{35}  2.59713316×10^{25}m  200.___  ___  
Primary String  1. 2 points  3.23239994×10^{35}  5.19426632×10^{25}m  201.___  ___  
Singularity  0. 1 point  1.616199(97)x10^{35}m  1.03885326×10^{26}m  202. EOU at 202.34  ___ 
Synopsis: This Big Boardlittle universe is to order data in a way to open a discussion about our basic assumptions — the universals and constants — that guide our thinking and work. An initial focus is Max Planck’s calculation in 1900 of the Planck Length.Very Brief History: The work began by attempting to find new starting points for creative thinking, new insights, even breakthroughs, regarding the very nature of space and time. In the 1970s the following first principles were formulated as preconditions for a spacetime moment at the zeropoint defined by Planck, Stern and Einstein.First principles: Deep within the fabric of life there is an energy, an abiding thrust to make things better, more perfect. That is the cornerstone of business, but much more. Simple logic tells us that there are three forms within functions that define an increasingly perfected state within an experience: 1. The first form that defines our humanity is order and its most basic function, a simple perfection, creates continuity. 2. The second form is a relation and its function creates symmetry. 3. The third form is dynamics and its perfection, a complex function, is harmony.These three — continuity, symmetry and harmony — just might be the precursors of a spacetime moment. 
A Working Project:A Big Board of our little universe. This work is copyright by three groups, all of River Ridge, PO Box 10132 New Orleans, LA 70123 USA  Illustration 3.Pentakis dodecahedron32 external vertices or points, 60 external tetrahedra, a layer of 46 asymmetrical tetrahedra and an icosahedron in the center. 
The challenge of four simple concepts: 1. A universal scale created by doublings. A simple scale that starts with a point at the Planck Length (PL), assumes Planck’s logic and mathematics are OK and that the PL singularity, an actual measurement, can be doubled. At each step there is a physical measurement. It takes 202.34 doublings to go from the PL to the Edges of Observable Universe (EOU). See all of the above. 

Illustration 2. Icosahedron20 tetrahedrons 13 points with shared center point, 1.54 steradians 
2. Nested geometries. The first doubling renders two points and the second doubling four points. With four points a tetrahedron could be rendered; it is the simplest threedimensional form defined by the fewest number of points. The third doubling renders eight points. With just seven of those points, a pentagonal cluster of five tetrahedrons can be inscribed (Illustration 1). With the fourth doubling, now sixteen points, the icosahedron with its thirteen vertices (points) can be created. (Illustration 2). A tetrahedron within the pentagonal cluster (Illus. 1) can inscribe four smaller tetrahedra and an octahedron within itself with just six of those points (and by dividing each edge in half). More…  
This project was initiated for the geometry classes of Steve Curtis at The Curtis School in River Ridge, LouisianaVersion 2.0.0.1  Illustration 1.Five Tetrahedrons,7 points7.36° gap or deviation  3. Facts and Guesses. Simple math renders simple facts. What can be done with these numbers, images and forms? What functions can be intuited? Perhaps a challenge to students could be to use buckyballs and the basic Platonic solids to build a most primitive kind of machine. More to come… This quest is a thought experiment that begins at the PL and proceeds with facts and guesses to edge of the observable universe.4. Noncommutative geometry, irrational numbers…Another idiosyncratic application to number theory, noncommutative geometries, irrational numbers, and dimensionful numbers is to see all of these as the results of a modulus of transformation and gaps between faces of less than 1.5° (as seen in the sevenpoint, fiveregular tetrahedra when each shares an edge). Much more to come… 
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